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IEEE 1264-2015 pdf free

IEEE 1264-2015 pdf free.IEEE Guide for Animal Deterrents for Electric Power Supply Substations.
There arc various reasons why animals enter substations. For example. cats enter substations for warmth, woodpeckers create holes for shelter and to store food, and birds build nests on equipment and structures, Raccoons and snakes try to reach bird nests for young birds and eggs. Squirrels. especially during weaning cycles, migrate through unfamiliar territory. Predators, such as foxes, enter a substation looking for rodents and other nocturnal animals that make homes in vaults, equipment, and structures.
Animals in substations cause a variety of problems. such as faults, which can result in power outages. reduced equipment life, or severely damaged equipment. They may even pose a variety of safety and health hazards due to animal waste, and safety to personnel who come upon the animal unexpectedly.
Squirrels, raccoons, snakes, and other creatures that climb fences, structures and equipment may eventually come into contact with energized parts of equipment or conductors, thus causing outages and damage. Rodents chewing through power and control cable insulation can also cause outages and damage.
Birds build nests in substation structures and equipment. sometimes using conductive material such as wire or magnetic tape that can fall or be carried into contact with insulators or bushings. Some birds have wing spans that can bridge phase-to-phase distance and cause an outage. Bird droppings can also be a major problem. Being communal, many congregate in a relatively small area. Their droppings accumulate on electric hardware quickly. causing insulator or bushing flashovers and possible equipment damage.
4.2.1 Outages
Animal-related outages run the gamut from momentary disturbances to long-term outages. Major portions of substations can be tripped off line, including transmission circuits.
In addition to the inconvenience caused by an outage and the cost of repair. revenue could be lost until service has been restored. Outages, sustained or momentary. reduce the long-term confidence of all customers and could be a critical factor for commercial and industrial customers. These problems can become serious if they are recurring in a particular substation or class of substations.
The majority of animal-related faults start as phase-to-ground faults, which may become phase-to-phase faults. Due to reduced clearances, these faults typicallY occur at 15 kV and below, but can also occur at higher voltages.
4.2.2 Equipment damage
The equipment susceptible to animal-related damage includes power transformers, capacitors, breakers, reclosers, surge arresters, voltage and current transformers, regulators, switchgear, potheads, switches, bushings, insulators, and bus conductors.IEEE 1264 pdf free download.

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